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How to mount a USB Drive in Gaia OS Technical Level
Solution

Impact on the Environment and Warnings

When mounting and unmounting devices to the file system, make sure not to mount over an existing file system (for example: /var). This could cause problems with system stability and/or data loss.

The USB device must be formatted with FAT, FAT32, EXT2, or EXT3 file system.
Gaia 3.10 also supports EXT4 and XFS file systems.
NTFS and extFAT file systems are not supported.

Mounting a USB storage drive

To mount a USB drive:

  1. Insert the USB drive into the Gaia machine.

  2. Connect to the command line on the Gaia machine.

  3. Log in to the Expert mode.

  4. In Gaia 3.10 - skip this step (not required).
    In Gaia 2.6.18 - if you inserted the USB drive after the machine was booted, then run: modprobe usb-uhci

  5. Run:
    modprobe usb-storage

  6. Run:
    dmesg
    This output shows the device and partition ID that was assigned to the USB device.

    Example:


    From the output above, we can see that it found the device and labeled it as device sdb1. Write down this device name - you use it later in the procedure.
    Note: The name of the storage device may vary, it depends on the internal library and the device type.

  7. Create a directory, for example usb-storage, in the root partition "/".
    Run:
    mkdir /usb-storage

  8. Make sure not overwrite any currently mounted partitions.
    Run:
    mount /dev/sdb1 /usb-storage

  9. Go to the newly mounted device.
    Run:
    cd /usb-storage

  10. Examine the list of files on the USB device.
    Run:
    ls 

    Example:


    In the example above, we can see the files that exist on that USB device, such as Check_Point_file.txt, and that the procedure worked correctly.
    At this point, you can copy files to and from the USB device.

Unmounting a USB drive

Once you are finished using the USB drive, you can unmount it.
First, close all open files that reside on the /usb-storage directory and make sure your present working directory is not the /usb-storage directory.

To make sure the mounted USB drive is not in use:

  1. Examine the current working directory.
    Run:
    pwd

  2. Change the current working directory to your user's home directory (to leave the /usb-storage directory).
    Run:
    cd ~

  3. Examine the current working directory again to make sure you are not in the /usb-storage directory.
    Run:
    pwd

  4. Save all applicable data from memory to the hard disk to avoid data loss.
    Run:
    sync

Now we can move forward with unmounting the USB device, so it can be safely removed from the machine.

To unmount the USB drive:

  1. Run:
    umount /usb-storage

  2. Make sure that /dev/sdb1 is no longer mounted to the /usb-storage directory.
    Run:
    mount

    Note: If still in doubt, then run the "umount /usb-storage" command again. The output will shows that it is not mounted.

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